2. Stephen Hawking’s Pot of Fresh Earth
‘Professionalism is the art of cheating one’s neighbors.’
‘Take a pot of fresh earth, add a pound of red copper and boil… Then add three ounces of soot and boil until ready’, says one of the best-known recipes of the philosophers’ stone. It’s naïve to believe that all modern researchers’ ideas of what is going on in our environment are much better-founded. Perhaps few synthesize elixir stone nowadays, but research-based alternatives are numerous, and some require no reagent costs at all.
Stephen Hawking’s bright idea is that you can take a black hole instead of a pot of fresh earth. He became a global scientist after supposing there are small black holes that radiate, and the smaller they are, the stronger their radiation is. Logically, after they become tiny, a huge explosion follows. In this way, Mr. Hawking prepared his own elixir stone without using a single pound of red copper.
You might ask why I consider such reasoning wrong. My answer is simple: just assess the density of such minute black holes. Such objects’ density can easily be shown to go to infinity as their mass gets smaller.
This is impossible, I shall assume - even though I’ve never looked into a telescope. Why? Simply because at distances of the order of 10-15, strong interaction among the nucleons that comprise the atomic nucleus is so high that their electromagnetic interaction (repulsion) gets virtually negligible.
To put it simply, if greater compression were possible, it would have occurred already. At such distances, Bergson’s time turns into Newton’s unidirectional time. That is why e.g. a proton is stable. In other words, a proton’s past equals its future.
If we grasp the difference between Newtonian and Bergson’s time, we can reasonably suppose that maximum density of matter in the visible Universe cannot be well above that of an atomic nucleus.
And this is confirmed by astronomical observations, for by now astronomers have found no objects with densities many orders higher than nuclear density, 109 tonnes per cubic centimeter (largely determined by the strong interaction mechanism).
For that same reason I used the assessment of maximum density to calculate the maximum energy of cosmic gamma-quanta generated by the white hole phenomenon.
The formula of the quantum’s energy change in gravity field (for an infinitely distant observer) is as follows:
where Z-is gravitational shift factor, M – the astronomical object’s mass, R – radius from its mass center and , C – is light velocity.
We can assume maximum radius to be the critical radius of the black hole at the center of our Galaxy, and calculate minimum radius assuming that the object’s maximum density is limited (to that of an atomic nucleus).
As I mentioned above, this produces some six orders’ increase of radiation power, which is fully in line with the maximum energy of gamma quanta occasionally captured by astronomers.
These calculations justify the fact that our ancestors were not killed by gamma-ray bursts – if only mutated somewhat.
3. A Very Bright Star Near the NGC 4993 Elliptical Galaxy
The 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded for the experimental detection of gravitation waves. And may authors began comparing that discovery to something close to the discovery of the radio.
Nevertheless, at this stage the discovery’s significance is nowhere near the discoveries by Nikola Tesla, Alexander Stepanovich Popov, and Marconi.
The point is that the radio is a means of wireless transmission of information that uses radio waves freely propagating in space as an information carrier.
Conversely, as regards gravity, mankind knows no method of transmitting information carried by gravitational waves; moreover, such transmission is impossible to implement even theoretically.
So the detection of gravitational waves by the LIGO and VIRGO collaborations only means the fact that they detect something and then researchers try to match it to events occurring in the skies.
The reality is that if no such events can be found, the signal is assumed to have arisen from black holes’ collision. And if the signal on the LIGO detectors can be matched to electromagnetic signals, like in the case of the gamma-ray burst near the NGC 4993 elliptical galaxy, then neutron stars’ merger is assumed.
It is only unclear why that gamma-ray burst was the dimmest one over the whole period of space observations in this range.
Thus, on 17 August two U.S. detectors recorded a relatively weak signal named GW170817, and it was matched to a gamma-ray burst registered by NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Then the Hubble Space Telescope saw the same burst’s ultraviolet radiation that kept glowing for six days. The official explanation came quickly: the gamma-ray burst had been caused by the merger of some two neutron stars.
But the explanation jars with the fact of the GRB being so dim, for the NGC 4993 galaxy is just 130 million light years away – next door, by cosmic standards. (Either the neutron stars were of some different make, or the distance was wrongly measured).
The event’s thermodynamics is of interest, too.
According to the current star evolution theory, neutron stars are actually a final (pre-black-hole) stage of evolution. So it is just as logical to expect their merger to produce heavy elements, like lead and gold, as to expect coal burning to produce mahogany.
But physicists do expect miracles and find their own path between searches for elixir stone and for a black cat in a dark room.
I can only wish them every success and new discoveries, that will definitely follow.
4. Cosmic Gamma Quanta’s Maximum Energy.
According to the precepts of modern theoretical physics, gamma quanta’s maximum energy is unlimited.
But this stands in direct conflict with the observations as well as the anthropic principle.
THE ANTHROPIC PRINCIPLE is a fundamental principle of modern cosmology that links the large-scale properties of our Metagalaxy to the human observer’s sheer existence.
In other words, if super-high energy gamma quanta were to be found near the Earth in if any sizable numbers, mankind’s existence would be far from certain. So a limited maximum energy of gamma quanta is an important pre-condition for the very existence of the human race.
If we search Google for ‘gamma quanta maximum energy’, we find that in this component of cosmic rays photon energy is some 100 GEV, compared to 250 KEV for X-rays.
The most obvious sources of super-powerful gamma rays are gamma-ray bursts.
For example, the GRB 970228 event’s energy (assuming its radiation was isotropic) was 1.6•1052 erg, which is an order higher than a typical supernova’s energy and comparable to our Sun’s rest energy – but released in a very short time.
It is no surprise that gamma-ray bursts still lack a generally recognized theoretical explanation.
Astronomers Alon Retter and Shlomo Heller associate the abnormal GRB 060614 gamma-ray burst that occurred in 2006 with a white hole.
I have prepared a theoretical justification of this phenomenon for the Russian language Wikipedia: white holes may appear as black hole matter on an inversely directed thermodynamic time arrow exits its event horizon.
I shall now try to estimate the maximum energy of this event’s gamma quanta.
The white hole phenomenon expressly violates the second law of thermodynamics; nevertheless, the energy conservation law must surely apply to a white hole.
We write down gravitational shift effect according to the formula:
where Z-is gravitational shift factor, M – the astronomical object’s mass, R – radius from its mass center, and C is light velocity.
We can try to estimate the gravitational red shift for the black hole at the heart of our Milky Way galaxy.
The object’s critical density as estimated by A. Cherepashchuk is 2*10-4 (g/cu. cm), and with the real density of an equal density black hole object taken to be 2*1014 (g/cu. cm) we get a density increase by 18 orders on the photon’s way from BH gravity radial to surface.
So if light were to travel from the object’s gravity radial to BH surface, its red shift would be the cube root of 1018 , that is, 106.
Proceeding from the energy conservation law and the theoretical justification of the white hole, we can estimate the maximum increase of radiation energy in a white hole at six orders.
It is plain to see that this estimate is fully in line with maximum gamma quantum energies observed in cosmic rays.
5. Galaxies Never Age, Like Ladies.
According to Wikipedia, ‘there is currently no satisfactory theory of the emergence and evolution of galaxies’.
Google bridges this theoretical gap quite gracefully.
If we believe in the Big Bang hypothesis, galaxy formation started with neutral gas condensation immediately after the end of the Dark Ages.
This idea is just as handsome as it is incongruous. It means that young galaxies appeared right after the Big Bang and may thus actually exist on the outskirts of our Universe only.
So we search Google for ‘young galaxies’.
NASA’s Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) deep space probe found newly emerging galaxies in relative proximity to our Solar system. Out of the thousands of new stellar systems that the spacecraft found two to four billion light years away from the Earth, more than thirty are several times as bright as our Milky Way, which indicates that they are forming actively.
Two billion light years away is by no means the margins of our Universe (the minimum dimensions of the visible Universe are some 14 billion light years), and in the Big Bang perspective those galaxies turn out to be terribly old, aged a minimum of 10 billion years.
So are they young or old ?
We search Google for ‘inverse direction of time’ and see my article about the differences between Bergson’s and Newtonian time (certainly inspired by the famous Cybernetics by Norbert Wiener).
Newtonian time makes no distinction between past and future; in Newtonian time, galaxies may form at any moment if the gravitation parameters are suitable, so the Universe is stationary.
My and the American astronomer Lawrence Schulman’s assumption that the thermodynamic arrow of time is inversely directed in black holes justifies the possibility of hydrogen generation by black holes and the realization of Small Bangs (as Israeli astronomers Alon Retter and Shlomo Heller called the White Holes).
The above position can easily be shown to be the theoretical basis underlying the recent and ongoing birth of new galaxies in the Universe (though in Newtonian time birth is no different from death).
So we conclude that galaxies are born and die like humans, but they NEVER grow old – like ladies.
6. Waves and Tides Are the Same Thing to Them
‘The speed of gravity that I calculated by analyzing the motion of the Moon, its so-called secular accelerations, is at least 50 million times faster than the speed of light!’
Pierre-Simon de Laplace
I am not sure how big the budget of theoretical physics is, but some of it is certainly spent to fight real evil such as the writer. The Cnews technical forum is helpful as usual, for free thinkers still remain there (pressurized as usual by a group of so-called hack spoilers and lunatics).
But the ideas are thick in the air.
I’ve looked through a superb book, The Fifth Force, by V.G. Surdin – dedicated to tidal forces in space; but, interestingly, it also suggests devising a concept of inversely flowing time in black holes. Yet the author rather looks for similarities with the Time Machine science fiction novel by Herbert Wells and proceeds from papers by the Russian astrophysicist I. Novikov and the American Kip Thorne, who seem to have really expected black holes to permit travel in time.
But they certainly don’t. There is a proven theoreme (by Hawkins, Israel, and Carter) that information is lost in a black hole (a black hole has no hair).
It is the thermodynamic arrow of time, rather than a specific object’s time, that is inversely directed in black holes; consequently – both in my own understanding and according to Lawrence Schulman’s model – they are not time machines.
As we build their thermodynamic model, black holes are areas of space with an inverse thermodynamic arrow of time relative to the observer.
Consequently, as the matter of the black hole (with its inversely directed time) exits its event horizon, the observer sees a white hole.
So the combination of black/white holes is not a fantastic time machine but a naturally arranged mechanism that explains why we can see the Universe as a whole without signs of aging and thermal death.
Also, the book’s extended information about the effect of tidal forces only strengthened a number of my convictions that I had repeatedly expressed in physicists’ fora:
1) the effect of gravitation is not limited to the speed of light (but is apparently infinitely fast – for the observers known to us);
2) gravitational waves are just ripples in spacetime, only subject to a limitation on the propagation speed of electromagnetic signals (in other words, the luminous echoes of gravitational interactions) rather than the real energy transmission process;
3) as regards energy exchange, it is the work of tidal forces that is a reality, discussed in interpretations of observations by Hulse and Taylor, and what they term as gravitational wave energy.
So Hulse and Taylor describe the process of conversion of orbital energy into the work of tidal forces (rather than plastic deformations) that they term gravitational wave energy in their article.
But does it really make a difference?
7. The Principle of Equivalence, or Black Holes Move and White Holes Win
The Israeli astrophysicists Alon Retter and Shlomo Heller recently stated that the source of the abnormal GRB 060614 gamma-ray burst in 2006 was a white hole.
Interestingly, the very existence of this Live Journal is in a way related to this event. I decided to regularly write articles to my Live Journal after I was banned on the forum of the Moscow State University for my theoretical justification of the existence of such astronomic objects; it was then dismissed as nonsense and relegated to the site’s Frightorium section.
But it is quite ordinary for me to write about it, for the assumption of an inverse thermodynamic arrow of time was derided by everyone and blocked in fora, too – until it transpired that Lawrence Schulman, a well-known American astrophysicist, had expressed exactly the same ideas back in the mid-90s.
I had a persistent feeling of a jigsaw puzzle coming together, and then the Israeli guys’ discovery added to my confidence that I was generally on the right track towards the truth.
And the exchange of opinions in the FIAN discussion forum and an inquiry into the genesis of, and mathematical relationships in the General Relativity Theory led me to justify the following points relating to the GRT scope of application.
Although the idea of space curvature, with its accompanying equations, is currently a pillar of the GRT, we should remember that, historically, the GRT equations emerged after Albert Einstein asked a friend of his, Marcel Grossmann, to help develop a mathematical apparatus for describing the principle of equivalence. It is indeed the equivalence principle that is the best-confirmed part of the GRT.
Yet under real conditions the equivalence principle is completely true in the case of a stationary and homogeneous system only. Indeed, e.g. on the Earth human brain can easily distinguish the effect of terrestrial gravity from inertia, while the equivalence principle, with ‘the asphalt rising’, only applies when one is quite drunk.
In this connection I asked: under which conditions will the equivalence principle fully apply in the space around us?
What conditions will ensure full equivalence between rest mass/energy and mass as a measure of inertia, subject to the requirements of thermodynamics? And I concluded that a black hole’s surface may match such conditions.
Consequently, in my opinion, it is a black hole’s surface if closed, and a white hole’s surface if open, that is described by the GRT equations, rather than the whole space of the Universe as some astrophysicists have supposed until now. This apparently unconventional position might be confirmed to an extent by the shape of the explosion of SN 1987 supernova (in my opinion, a white hole), that matched the presumable shape of an open (not closed) Universe.